*Preprint*

**Inserted:** 25 jul 2024

**Last Updated:** 25 jul 2024

**Year:** 2024

**Abstract:**

We complete the study concerning the minimization of the positive principal eigenvalue associated with a weighted Neumann problem settled in a bounded regular domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^{N}$, $N\geq2$, for the weight varying in a suitable class of sign-changing bounded functions. Denoting with $u$ the optimal eigenfunction and with $D$ its super-level set, corresponding to the positivity set of the optimal weight, we prove that, as the measure of $D$ tends to zero, the unique maximum point of $u$, $P\in \partial \Omega$, tends to a point of maximal mean curvature of $\partial \Omega$. Furthermore, we show that $D$ is the intersection with $\Omega$ of a $C^{1,1}$ nearly spherical set, and we provide a quantitative estimate of the spherical asymmetry, which decays like a power of the measure of $D$.

These results provide, in the small volume regime, a fully detailed answer to some long-standing questions in this framework.

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