*Accepted Paper*

**Inserted:** 29 oct 2019

**Last Updated:** 26 may 2020

**Journal:** Nonlinear Analysis

**Volume:** 200

**Year:** 2020

**Abstract:**

This paper is related to the problem of finding a good notion of rectifiability in sub-Riemannian geometry. In particular, we study which kind of results can be expected for smooth hypersurfaces in Carnot groups. Our main contribution will be a consequence of the following result: there exists a $C^{\infty}$ hypersurface $S$ without characteristic points that has uncountably many pairwise non-isomorphic tangent groups on every positive-measure subset. The example is found in a Carnot group of topological dimension 8, it has Hausdorff dimension 12 and so we use on it the Hausdorff measure $\mathcal{H}^{12}$. As a consequence, we show that for every Carnot group of Hausdorff dimension 12, any Lipschitz map defined on a subset of it with values in $S$ has $\mathcal{H}^{12}$-null image. In particular, we deduce that this smooth hypersurface cannot be Lipschitz parametrizable by countably many maps each defined on some subset of some Carnot group of Hausdorff dimension $12$. As main consequence we have that a notion of rectifiability proposed by S.Pauls is not equivalent to one proposed by B.Franchi, R.Serapioni and F.Serra Cassano, at least for arbitrary Carnot groups. In addition, we show that, given a subset $U$ of a homogeneous subgroup of Hausdorff dimension $12$ of a Carnot group, every bi-Lipschitz map $f:U\to S$ satisfies $\mathcal{H}^{12}(f(U))=0$. Finally, we prove that such an example does not exist in Heisenberg groups: we prove that all $C^{\infty}$-hypersurfaces in $\mathbb H^n$ with $n\geq 2$ are countably $\mathbb{H}^{n-1}\times\mathbb R$-rectifiabile according to Pauls' definition, even with bi-Lipschitz maps.

**Tags:**
GeoMeG