Calculus of Variations and Geometric Measure Theory

D. Trevisan

Wide Deep Neural Networks with Gaussian Weights are Very Close to Gaussian Processes

created by trevisan on 05 Jul 2024



Inserted: 5 jul 2024

Year: 2023

ArXiv: 2312.11737 PDF


We establish novel rates for the Gaussian approximation of random deep neural networks with Gaussian parameters (weights and biases) and Lipschitz activation functions, in the wide limit. Our bounds apply for the joint output of a network evaluated any finite input set, provided a certain non-degeneracy condition of the infinite-width covariances holds. We demonstrate that the distance between the network output and the corresponding Gaussian approximation scales inversely with the width of the network, exhibiting faster convergence than the naive heuristic suggested by the central limit theorem. We also apply our bounds to obtain theoretical approximations for the exact Bayesian posterior distribution of the network, when the likelihood is a bounded Lipschitz function of the network output evaluated on a (finite) training set. This includes popular cases such as the Gaussian likelihood, i.e. exponential of minus the mean squared error.