*Published Paper*

**Inserted:** 10 apr 2024

**Last Updated:** 10 apr 2024

**Journal:** Applied Mathematics & Optimization

**Year:** 2020

**Doi:** 10.1007/s00245-018-9531-8

**Abstract:**

We consider the flow of multiple particles in a Bingham fluid in an anti-plane shear flow configuration. The limiting situation in which the internal and applied forces balance and the fluid and particles stop flowing, that is, when the flow settles, is formulated as finding the optimal ratio between the total variation functional and a linear functional. The minimal value for this quotient is referred to as the critical yield number or, in analogy to Rayleigh quotients, generalized eigenvalue. This minimum value can in general only be attained by discontinuous, hence not physical, velocities. However, we prove that these generalized eigenfunctions, whose jumps we refer to as limiting yield surfaces, appear as rescaled limits of the physical velocities. Then, we show the existence of geometrically simple minimizers. Furthermore, a numerical method for the minimization is then considered. It is based on a nonlinear finite difference discretization, whose consistency is proven, and a standard primal-dual descent scheme. Finally, numerical examples show a variety of geometric solutions exhibiting the properties discussed in the theoretical sections.