*preprint*

**Inserted:** 28 nov 2023

**Year:** 2023

**Abstract:**

The aim of the present paper is to investigate the behavior of the spectrum of the Neumann Laplacian in domains with little holes excised from the interior. More precisely, we consider the eigenvalues of the Laplacian with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions on a bounded, Lipschitz domain. Then, we singularly perturb the domain by removing Lipschitz sets which are "small" in a suitable sense and satisfy a uniform extension property. In this context, we provide an asymptotic expansion for all the eigenvalues of the perturbed problem which are converging to simple eigenvalues of the limit one. The eigenvalue variation turns out to depend on a geometric quantity resembling the notion of (boundary) torsional rigidity: understanding this fact is one of the main contributions of the present paper. In the particular case of a hole shrinking to a point, through a fine blow-up analysis, we identify the exact vanishing order of such a quantity and we establish some connections between the location of the hole and the sign of the eigenvalue variation.