Calculus of Variations and Geometric Measure Theory

D. Bucur - J. Lamboley - M. Nahon - R. Prunier

Sharp Quantitative Stability of the Dirichlet spectrum near the ball

created by bucur on 28 Apr 2023



Inserted: 28 apr 2023

Year: 2023

ArXiv: 2304.10916 PDF


Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be an open set with same volume as the unit ball $B$ and let $\lambda_k(\Omega)$ be the $k$-th eigenvalue of the Laplace operator of $\Omega$ with Dirichlet boundary conditions in $\partial\Omega$. In this work, we answer the following question: if $\lambda_1(\Omega)-\lambda_1(B)$ is small, how large can $
$ be ? We establish quantitative bounds of the form $
\le C (\lambda_1(\Omega)-\lambda_1(B))^\alpha$ with sharp exponents $\alpha$ depending on the multiplicity of $\lambda_k(B)$. We first show that such an inequality is valid with $\alpha=1/2$ for any $k$, improving previous known results and providing the sharpest possible exponent. Then, through the study of a vectorial free boundary problem, we show that one can achieve the better exponent $\alpha=1$ if $\lambda_{k}(B)$ is simple. We also obtain a similar result for the whole cluster of eigenvalues when $\lambda_{k}(B)$ is multiple, thus providing a complete answer to the question above. As a consequence of these results, we obtain the persistence of the ball as minimizer for a large class of spectral functionals which are small perturbations of the fundamental eigenvalue on the one hand, and a full reverse Kohler-Jobin inequality on the other hand, solving an open problem formulated by M. Van Den Berg, G. Buttazzo and A. Pratelli.