*preprint*

**Inserted:** 2 aug 2022

**Year:** 2021

**Abstract:**

In this paper we consider the gradient flow of the following Ginzburg-Landau type energy \[ F_\varepsilon(u) := \frac{1}{2}\int_{M}\vert D u\vert_g^2 +\frac{1}{2\varepsilon^2}\left(\vert u\vert_g^2-1\right)^2\mathrm{vol}_g. \] This energy is defined on tangent vector fields on a $2$-dimensional closed and oriented Riemannian manifold $M$ (here $D$ stands for the covariant derivative) and depends on a small parameter $\varepsilon>0$. If the energy satisfies proper bounds, when $\varepsilon\to 0$ the second term forces the vector fields to have unit length. However, due to the incompatibility for vector fields on $M$ between the Sobolev regularity and the unit norm constraint, critical points of $F_\varepsilon$ tend to generate a finite number of singular points (called vortices) having non-zero index (when the Euler characteristic is non-zero). These types of problems have been extensively analyzed in a recent paper by R. Ignat and R. Jerrard. As in Euclidean case, the position of the vortices is ruled by the so-called renormalized energy. In this paper we are interested in the dynamics of vortices. We rigorously prove that the vortices move according to the gradient flow of the renormalized energy, which is the limit behavior when $\varepsilon\to 0$ of the gradient flow of the Ginzburg-Landau energy.