Inserted: 20 mar 2017
Last Updated: 20 mar 2017
These are extended notes of the course given by the author at RIMS, Kyoto, in October 2016. The aim is to give a self-contained overview on the recently developed approach to differential calculus on metric measure spaces. The effort is directed into giving as many ideas as possible, without losing too much time in technical details and utmost generality: for this reason many statements are given under some simplifying assumptions and proofs are sometimes only sketched.