*Preprint*

**Inserted:** 27 may 2021

**Last Updated:** 27 may 2021

**Year:** 2021

**Abstract:**

We study the properties of sets $\Sigma$ which are the solutions of the maximal distance minimizer problem, id est of sets having the minimal length (one-dimensional Hausdorff measure) over the class of closed connected sets $\Sigma \subset \mathbb{R}^2$ satisfying the inequality $\max_{y \in M} dist(y,\Sigma) \leq r$ for a given compact set $M \subset \mathbb{R}^2$ and some given $r > 0$. Such sets can be considered as the shortest networks of radiating cables arriving to each customer (from the set $M$ of customers) at a distance at most $r$. In this work it is proved that each maximal distance minimizer is a union of finite number of simple curves, having one-sided tangents at each point. Moreover the angle between these rays at each point of a maximal distance minimizer is greater or equal to $2\pi/3$. It shows that a maximal distance minimizer is isotopic to a finite Steiner tree even for a ``bad'' compact $M$, which differs it from a solution of the Steiner problem (there exists an example of a Steiner tree with an infinite number of branching points). Also we classify the behavior of a minimizer in a neighbourhood of an arbitrary point of $\Sigma$.

In fact, all the results are proved for more general class of local minimizer, i.e. sets which are optimal in a neighbourhood of its arbitrary point.

**Keywords:**
maximal distance minimizers; optimisation; regularity